Ngāi Tahu was a small hapū which had ahi-kā-roa along the Waikari and Waitaha Rivers and their tributaries. The eponymous ancestor of Ngāi Tahu is Tahumatua II. Tahu’s descendant, Te Keu-o-te-Rangi, fathered four children: Toenga, Tukapuarangi, Te Whiunga and Hinekaraka. The descendants of these four children were known as Ngāi Tahu and those who maintained their occupation were the tāngata whenua. Various branches of Ngāi Tahu were known by other names and represented smaller family groups, such as Ngāti Hikapii, Ngāti Hineiro, Ngāti Moe, Ngāti Peke, Ngāti Rangitakuao, Ngāti Tataku and Ngāi Te Maaha. There are kāinga and pā associated with Ngāi Tahu along the Waikari, Anaura and Waitaha Rivers and their tributaries. The kāinga and pā of Ngāi Tahu in the lower Waikari River area, and as far north as the Waitaha Stream, include Kumarawainui, Tutaekaraka, Hurihanga, Takapuwahia, Tokatea, Pukepiripiri, Puketaiata, Tauwhare and Kaiwaka. The kāinga and pā in the upper Waikari River and its tributaries include Te Nakunaku, Waipopopo, Tawhitikoko, Patokai and Tiekenui.